The covid19 is a disease that has been spreading for more than a year ago. This virus has affected many people around the world, causing a very high number of deaths that nowadays continue increasing. In addition, this disease has also caused shortages in many homes because of the quarantine, many people have lost their jobs and they have had to find a way to generate income during all this time.
On the other hand, the health authorities continue working to stop the expansion and the effects on the population.
The use of a mask, alcohol, distancing and avoiding crowded places is the best way to avoid infecting ourselves and our family members. In addition, several laboratories have been working on the vaccines in different countries, some of them are already available, others are in the approval process and some in the scientific phase.
In this 2021 that is just beginning, in some countries front-line people have already received the second dose of the Pfizer vaccine.
The covid19 and the vaccines that began to be applied
Since different vaccines for this disease began to be developed, several people turned their attention to them. These were developed in record time and 2020 ended with several of them that have already been authorized.
There are currently 83 vaccines that are in the testing stage in humans. Three vaccines have been approved for unlimited or emergency use while 5 have limited approval. Next, we will see what they are.
Pfizer / BioNTech and Moderna vaccines
The vaccine developed by the German laboratory BioNTech in partnership with the Pfizer laboratory and the one that has been developed by the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases of the United States and the Moderna laboratory, have been described on December 11 and 18.
They both use the same RNA technology. These vaccines have characteristics that differentiate them from one to another, for example, cold storage.
Pfizer’s needs temperatures between -60 and -80 degrees Celsius, which has forced to organize an expensive distribution and storage system, Moderna’s only requires -20 degrees, like a domestic freezer.
In terms of doses, both vaccines require two doses, but Moderna’s are 100 micrograms and has to be administered 28 days apart, while Pfizer’s are 30 micrograms, to be administered in 21 days. Both are more than 94% effective.
The Moderna vaccine was authorized for limited use in people over the age of 18 in Canada while in the United States only for emergency use.
Pfizer’s vaccine was approved without restrictions in several countries like Switzerland and Saudi Arabia, in Latin American countries like Mexico, Ecuador, Chile and others, it has been authorized for emergency use only.
Vaccines from Russia and China
China and Russia seem to become international players in the development of a vaccine against covid19. This is the third approved vaccine, the Chinese laboratory Sinopharm uses the traditional technology to inactivate the virus, it is 79% effective and was approved without limitations in China, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain.
On the other hand, we can mention that the five vaccines that have received approval for limited use have been those of the Gamaleya and Vector institutes in Russia. Also the one of Oxfofd / AstraZeneca in the UK and those of the Chinese laboratories Casino and Sinovac. The one that is carried out by the Gamaleya institute has made us know that it uses two viruses as vectors, Ad26 and Ad5.
This vaccine is 92% effective and is authorized in Russia, Belrus and Argentina.
However, the one created at the Vector institute uses small portions of the virus called pépitos. This vaccine has already been approved in Russia, but it is still being studied.
The Oxford and AstraZeneca vaccine
This vaccine uses chimpanzee cold virus as a vector and has given results of 70% efficiency. It has been developed by the University of Oxford with the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca.
The Oxford and AstraZeneca vaccine has been authorized for emergency use in the UK, Argentina and India.
Doctors says that it is still necessary to clarify why those people who received half the dose as an initial injection in the clinical trial, followed by a full dose, had a 90% response, while those who received two full doses had a response of only 62%.
On December 11, the University of Oxford publicly announced that they have signed an agreement with the Gamaleya Institute of Russia to combine both vaccines and achieve the vaccine to have a better effectiveness.
Vaccines that are still being studied
Apart from the vaccines that have already been released previously, there are two that are waiting to complete their phase 3 of studies before they can be approved. We are talking about those of the American laboratory Johnson & Johnson.
This vaccine uses the Ad26 cold virus as a vector. The other vaccine we are talking about is the one of the Chinese laboratory Sinovac, which uses the new inactivated covid19 as a platform.
We have to say that the outlook for vaccines is encouraging for all people. Many people are waiting for these vaccines to be completely safe to access to them. However, several experts on this topic indicate that vaccines can’t be the only solution to the pandemic.
Also, they mention that this entire vaccination process will be carried out slowly, taking into account that there are countries with medium and low economic resources.
All this means that, until vaccination is truly universal, during this year we will have to do everything possible to avoid infection. We should wear masks, keep physical distance, wash our hands frequently and use alcohol.